The treatment of acute orchiepididymitis is selected depending on the causes of its occurrence. By this medical term is meant inflammation of the testicle, and in addition, its appendage. This is a very common disease that is associated with inflammation that occurs in the genitourinary system in the stronger sex. There are a lot of factors that contribute to the development of this pathology. The main ones are all kinds of viruses along with fungi and bacteria in active form. These include chlamydia with trichomonads, gonococci and tubercle bacillus.
Classification of the disease
Depending the specific and nonspecific forms of acute orthoepididymitis are distinguished from the nature of inflammatory processes in medicine. In a specific version, the causative agent of the development of inflammatory processes is the causative agent of tuberculosis, syphilis and brucellosis. In the event that the inflammation was caused by simple viruses and bacteria, for example, streptococcus, staphylococcus or Escherichia coli, then it is most likely a non-specific variant of the disease.
Acute and chronic form
Inflammatory processes can occur in acute and chronic form. In the presence of acute orchiepididymitis on the left, the symptomatology of the disease manifests itself most clearly. At the same time, sharp pains are noted along with an increase in the testicle in size, it can become dense and very stressful. Often, an increase in temperature can be noted. The chronic form of the pathology is characterized by a long course with periodic exacerbation. Next, acute orthoepididymitis will be examined in detail.
Causes of development
The pathogen penetrates the testicular tissue during transmission from the sexual partner. Also, infection can be carried out from the focus of inflammation occurring in the body. The development of orchoepididymitis is observed in the presence of a large number of viruses or bacteria in the tissues. Provoking factors are the decrease in the defenses of the human body in case of infectious diseases, against the background of hypothermia and the use of alcohol or certain drugs. The causative agent of the infection, as a rule, penetrates the testicular tissue with blood flow through the ejaculatory ducts.
Most often, acute left-handed orthoepididymitis occurs. The inflammatory focus can be located directly in the seminal vesicles, within the prostate gland, in the urethra, in the intestines or kidneys. Surgical intervention contributes to inflammation along with injuries, impaired innervation and blood supply. Sometimes infection occurs even after some time after surgery, which may contribute to improper care of the sutures.
What should be done in the postoperative period?
It is in this connection that the following should be done in the postoperative period: :
- Take antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Avoid heavy physical exertion.
- Perform timely dressings.
Inflammatory secret as a cause of pathology
Inflammation that developed due to vascularization of the organ and the emergence of an ideal environment for bacterial reproduction, has a pronounced character. Against the background of the active reproduction of microorganisms in the glandular tissue, a significant amount of exudate is produced, which is an inflammatory fluid. It contains products of bacterial activity and leukocytes, that is, cells that are formed in the body as a response to inflammation.
Due to the development of inflammatory secretions, and in addition, due to the active activity of bacteria, gradual replacement is carried out glandular tissue connective elements. Some types of parasitic agents can adapt to the long-term existence in the human body, in connection with this, orchoepididymitis can take a chronic character, against which periods of exacerbation will be replaced by lulls.
Signs of acute orchoepididymitis can not always be pronounced. Pathology can occur in people in an asymptomatic or subclinical format. However, this does not mean at all that the patient’s inflammation is mild and can be cured spontaneously. The chance of recovery is high only if the right treatment and further preventive measures are taken.
Symptoms of the disease
Acute orchiepididymitis on the right can be accompanied by pain in men in the affected area of the scrotum. In addition, patients may experience fever along with fever. Such symptoms appear, as a rule, unexpectedly and are observed for seven to ten days, after which, with proper treatment, they completely disappear.
In the absence of adequate therapy, the acute nature of orchiepididymitis usually passes into a chronic form. The pain in the scrotum increases over time, and in the later stages there is also swelling. In the presence of an acute inflammatory process, tissue blood supply is disturbed. And the presence of constant irritation of the nerve endings contributes to a significant increase in unpleasant symptoms.
Often acute orthoepididymitis (according to ICD-10 - N 45) in men ends with the formation of a purulent abscess, which can give the most favorable prognosis. The affected area of the tissue at the same time overgrows with a membrane, and after this resolves. Against the background of the formation of an abscess, the clinical picture of the pathology becomes more noticeable and pronounced. The pain syndrome is gaining intensity, and the temperature can rise to thirty-nine degrees. After a few days, the symptomatology weakens, and the patient's well-being soon improves. In case of the first symptoms of inflammation of the testis and appendage, men urgently need to see a treating urologist.
In acute right-sided orthoepididymitis, symptoms can also be associated with the presence of foci of infection in other organs of the genitourinary system. Such inflammation is characterized by minor pain in the affected area, aggravated by movement. The left, as well as the right part of the scrotum, can increase in size, and painful swelling can occur.
In the presence of purulent forms of orchiepididymitis, suppuration occurs in patients, which leads to a change in testicular tissue. A prolonged course of the inflammatory process leads to a violation of the degree of patency of the vas deferens. Acute orthoepididymitis on the right and on the left can lead to infertility.
The course of the acute process in rare cases can be asymptomatic, which is why it is simply impossible to find the pathology and cure it in time. In other situations, the disease is characterized by a characteristic clinical picture, in which pain in the inguinal region is noted. In addition, there is a decrease in sexual desire along with unpleasant sensations during erection and signs of intoxication of the body. The composition of the seminal fluid may also change, for example, purulent or bloody inclusions appear in it. The testicle may become more dense.
The examination of the patient begins with an examination of the inguinal region and an analysis of the available clinical symptoms. During palpation, as a rule, an increase in the scrotum along with varying degrees of pain is detected. In addition, the patient may also have a glandular tissue densification.
Before starting therapy, it is necessary to identify the causative agents of infection, and in addition, determine their sensitivity to drugs. To do this, conduct bacteriological studies of seminal fluid, and also study the secretion of the urethra. If necessary, perform a puncture of the abscess, which allows you to establish the nature of inflammation. Based on the results of these studies, a final diagnosis can be made.
In acute orchoepididymitis in men on the right or left, treatment usually involves an integrated approach. As part of therapy, the elimination of acute inflammatory processes is required. Treatment must be carried out in a hospital. Only with a chronic form can therapeutic measures be carried out in an outpatient clinic. Therapy begins with the use of antibacterial drugs that have a wide range of effects.
During further treatment, they can be replaced with specific drugs. Anti-inflammatory drugs are also used in the treatment of this disease, which reduce the temperature and improve blood circulation in the area of the affected tissues. In the treatment of orthoepididymitis, cephalosporins are used along with sulfonamides and macrolides. Drugs such as Analgin, Paracetamol and Aspirin are used as antipyretic and analgesics.
Treatment of acute left-sided orchiepididymitis involves the elimination of gonorrhea and chlamydia, if any, are found in the patient. With trichomonas or gonococcal infection, it is necessary to carry out joint treatment of both sexual partners at once. Of course, it is recommended to refrain from sexual contact during this period. Accurate information about all contacts should be provided to the doctor as part of the first call. The duration of the therapeutic course is determined individually in each situation, this is directly related to the different duration of the incubation period of the sexually transmitted infection. A follow-up medical examination is usually prescribed three months after the completion of treatment of acute orchiepididymitis on the right or left.
In most situations, a positive result is observed already on the third day of the use of drugs. In the event that the treatment is not effective enough, it is best to re-conduct an additional examination or adjust the therapeutic regimen. In some situations, the disappearance of the symptoms of the disease takes a little longer than usual. A complicated form of epididymitis is usually treated surgically.
The recovery period
After the acute orthoepididymitis in men has subsided, patients are prescribed to go for physiotherapy (we are talking about magnetotherapy, laser and electrotherapy ) A visit to these therapeutic procedures is required to restore normal and at the same time healthy functioning of the testicle.
In order to exclude the risks of developing the described disease, you should definitely follow a few simple medical recommendations. Given that the most common cause of the development of a disease such as acute orchoepididymitis is infections that are transmitted through sexual contact, then urologists recommend that condoms be used continuously for men.
If a man has previously received an inguinal injury district, then you can not hesitate to consult a doctor for diagnosis. The scrotum should be protected not only from injury, but also from any hypothermia. Urologists also recommend that men wear underwear made from natural fabrics. It is also extremely important to timely treat existing pathologies of the genitourinary system in order to prevent the further development of certain complications.