Cortical dysarthria is considered a violation in the cerebral cortex of the brain, which affect the speech function of the body. A person loses the ability to speak separately, and the pace may occur during a conversation. The patient can replace some sounds with his own. At the same time, the semantic part of the sentence remains true, since a person is able to think. Diagnosis is carried out by a speech therapist and a neurologist. Additional diagnostic methods may also be performed to confirm brain problems. They treat the problem with massage, the work of a speech therapist and psychologist. It is also important to eliminate the cause of the problem.
Causes of cortical dysarthria
The main nuances of the disease have already been described. You need to understand why the problem arises. The cause of the occurrence is a malfunction of those areas in the brain that are responsible for the tongue, lips, palate, jaw. As for the reasons for which such violations occur, they are diverse:
- Tumors. When neoplasms occur in the brain, deformation of certain areas in the brain may occur.
- Injuries. Closed head injuries, concussion, as well as open skull fractures can lead to dysarthria. Sometimes hematomas that occur after injuries also lead to disruption of the cerebral cortex.
- Complications after serious illnesses, as well as common infections. It can be measles, herpes, rubella, SARS, the brain can often suffer. Purulent infections also lead to such consequences. We are talking about abscesses, sinusitis, otitis media. Tuberculosis and syphilis also lead to impaired brain function. This is due to the fact that in the brain the membranes begin to swell and the adjacent areas adjacent to the vessels are compressed. This provokes a violation of the work of neurons.
- Strokes. They can also cause oxygen starvation in some parts of the brain. Able to squeeze tissue in the body, where too high a surge of blood. Due to the fact that the natural influx and outflow of blood is restored for a long time, neurons can die.
- One of the common causes of the development of cortical dysarthria in children is a difficult pregnancy and incorrect actions on the part of the mother. Hypoxia, infections, and also injuries while carrying a child can lead to speech impairment. Rapid childbirth also sometimes adversely affects the state of the baby's brain.
The first type of dysarthria
How is the described disease manifested? There are two different types of speech dysfunction. The first is characterized by damage to the central part of the corresponding cerebral cortex. As a result of this, the person’s musculature on the face, in particular the language, is disturbed.
The second type of dysarthria
The second type of speech problems with the cortical form of dysarthria is that the brain does not properly process the received impulses, respectively, the facial organs do not work as they should. As a result, the problem is that the brain cannot program the sequence and strength of movements that are necessary to maintain normal conversational functions.
In neurology, several types of the described disease are distinguished. This is due to various reasons for its occurrence and manifestation. The therapy depends on what kind of problem is identified.
With a kinesthetic problem, a person has to look for the correct position of the language for pronouncing sound. With the kinetic type of the disease, a person speaks jerkily, slowly makes sounds. In some cases, the patient may pronounce words in syllables.
Symptoms of dysarthria
Characteristic of cortical dysarthria given. But what do the symptoms look like? The earliest manifestations are slow speech, lack of reflex phrases and impaired fluency. If you look at the patient from the side, it may seem that it is difficult for him to move his lips and tongue. In fact, this is really so because of a violation in the brain. An important symptom that the doctor pays attention to is the problem with the pronunciation of sounds for which you need to put the tongue forward. This is due to problems with the muscles of the tongue. Because of this, the person speaks incomprehensibly. There are no issues with semantic presentation.
Due to the specific structure of the defect in cortical dysarthria, a person often speaks with interruption. He tenses up, his voice becomes loud, and some consonants sound muffled. The patient begins to separate the sounds, for example, when pronouncing the letter "c" he says "t" and "s". The sensitivity of the face is lost. This is clarified when talking with the patient, he may incorrectly indicate the place the doctor touches.
Due to the disease, a person pronounces vowels too elongated. It’s hard for him to switch from sound to sound. Due to the loss of sensitivity, many sounds are pronounced completely incorrectly, as a person does not understand where the language is set for their pronunciation. It can skip individual sounds in words or add unnecessary ones. Most patients pause when pronouncing one word. If the case is neglected, then the patient divides the words into syllables. In addition, during a conversation a person begins to stick out his tongue, frowns his forehead and closes his eyes. Here are the symptoms of cortical dysarthria.
It is important to notice the symptoms described in time in order to diagnose and begin treatment as quickly as possible. Will it be possible to cure the patient and how much this disease can be corrected can be found further in the publication.
Complications for children
If the problem is detected in childhood, then the child may experience problems with the central nervous system . This problem reduces attentiveness. It is difficult for a child to remember information. Vocabulary is practically not formed. All this is due to problem speech. The child has difficulties with the assimilation of the phonetic part of speech. As a result, this leads not only to the fact that the child cannot speak normally, but also to the lack of writing skills. Dyslexia may develop. Moreover, the causes of cortical dysarthria are completely unimportant. In any case, the child will lag behind in development.
Complications in adults
As for adults, this disease puts more stress on them emotionally . People begin to become depressed because of the inability to speak normally and clearly with others. They can become too sad or irritable.
If the disease is congenital, then you can determine it before reaching the age of 2 years. It is manifested by low speech activity. The child makes few sounds. In order to determine the type of problem at this age, it is necessary to undergo examinations by a speech therapist and a neurologist. Additional studies are also added to determine the exact cause of the disease.
A neurologist can identify problems with the muscles of the face and tongue in particular. In addition, this doctor monitors the asymmetry of the face. He gives the child some tasks related to speech function, but patients, as a rule, are not able to do them. This is also considered one of the symptoms of cortical dysarthria.
A speech therapist diagnoses speech retardation, intermittent speech, and tension. Tests are required to understand what sounds the child misses, which ones he cannot make, whether there are any unnecessary sounds made in the words. As a rule, children with such a disease do not have breathing problems when speaking, everything is in order with the semantic side of the statement and with the phonemic hearing.
To determine the exact cause of the problem of cortical dysarthria in children or adults, associated with pathologies in the brain, neuroimaging is performed. If the disease was preceded by a stroke or a concussion, then computed tomography of the brain is done. It is also shown in cases where the child has a tumor. With inflammation, infections, the doctor prescribes magnetic resonance imaging. If the situation is neglected and complicated, then the specialist will advise you to do both types of studies.
If there is a chance that the patient develops a problem due to an inflammatory or infectious process, then he will be punctured. It is taken for examination of the cerebrospinal fluid, this is a fluid located in the brain. And after she undergoes laboratory tests.
Dysarthria in some manifestations is similar to other problems of the speech apparatus, so it is important to distinguish one disease from another during diagnosis. If we are talking about a child, it is important to pay attention to the fact that there is a preservation of the semantic side of the statement, and if the disease has affected an adult, the main feature of the disease will be that a person can read and write. Thus, it is clear that this disease manifests itself only in that it is not mental function that is disturbed, but specifically speech. This is what distinguishes cortical dysarthria from other similar diseases.
Treatment of dysarthria
First first, in the treatment of cortical dysarthria in children or adults, the root cause is determined, which caused the problem. If there are any consequences after the primary illness, then the doctor will first eliminate them. With complex treatment, that is, a visit to a neurologist, speech therapist, psychologist and rehabilitologist, you can restore speech function.
There is also drug therapy. What will be selected in the end, completely depends on what is characterized by cortical dysarthria in a particular patient.
A speech therapist always tries to motivate the patient. This is the key to further recovery. Massage, gymnastics for the facial muscles. A speech therapist teaches you to pronounce complex sounds by automating their pronunciation.
Since this disease is manifested by problems with the brain, medications are also necessary. They should help restore the work of the area that is responsible for speech function. Depending on the type of problem and the degree of its manifestation, nootropic drugs can be used, as well as many others - it is impossible to say exactly which ones will be prescribed. It also depends on the patient’s age and state of health.
The rehabilitation period for cortical dysarthria is very important for recovery. You need to constantly go for massage, to restore reflexes. Physiotherapy exercises for paretic parts of the body. It’s important to go to a psychologist, to courses where you can relax, trainings will also be useful.
Prediction and prevention
If treatment is started on time and in a timely manner to eliminate the manifestations of the primary problem, then the prognosis will be as favorable as possible. But you need to understand that everything depends on the degree of brain damage, on the correctness of the therapy, age, psychological state of the patient. Symptoms also play an important role in the treatment.
The problem that is accompanied by depression, paralysis, and injuries to the central nervous system is worst treated. It is still difficult to cure patients who are depressed. It is important to reduce stress so that the brain can recover.
Preventive measures include: timely treatment of emerging diseases that affect the nervous system and brain, prevention of cancer, and avoidance of traumatic situations.
In addition, in order to avoid congenital cortical dysarthria, mom needs to be careful during pregnancy. You should monitor your health, not bump, not be in stressful situations. Only this approach will help the baby in the womb not to suffer and be born healthy. Also during pregnancy, you need to sleep more, walk in the fresh air, abandon bad habits. If you have any unforeseen circumstances, you need to see a doctor.