After some time, people living in a private house live close together in their four walls, so there is a need for an additional extension. This article is devoted to the peculiarities of building an extension to the house with your own hands.
The extension can act as a terrace, porch, hallway, additional or utility room, hide wall defects or protect one side of the house from the wind.
You can design the construction drawing yourself or use ready-made solutions by contacting the building design department. It is worth noting that the ready-made solutions take into account all the nuances associated with safety and reliability.
Most often, the extension is erected from the front door. For a small family, an extension of 12 square meters is suitable. m.
The extension to the house must be legal, that is, before starting construction, you must write a statement to the BTI about the desire to make changes to the technical documentation for the house. Otherwise, the extension will be considered illegal, all further steps to legitimize it will go through court.
After the paper formalities are settled and the extension project is selected, you can begin the long-awaited construction.
Two main types of materials are used for the extension:
- wood (frame-panel extensions, board and log structures);
- brick (red, white, aerated concrete and cinder block).
An extension to the house with your own hands needs to be built from that mate rial from which the main house is built. The ideal case is when the extension is in perfect harmony with the building and the infrastructure of the site.
When creating the extension, do-it-yourself preliminary costing of prices for work, materials, as well as the expected construction time. Marking of the site in the selected and agreed place. The fertile soil layer can be carefully removed and evenly distributed on the beds.
Foundation for the extension
Consider such an important issue as the foundation for the extension, because the stability of the entire structure will depend on the quality of the foundation. You can’t save on the foundation.
Depending on whether the extension is selected - wooden (light) or brick (heavy) - the type of foundation is chosen.
Consider the foundations that are recommended to be built on a stable soil without groundwater.
If the extension is light, it’s best to choose a columnar foundation.
If the extension is heavy, then a tape foundation is a good option.
Let's consider both technologies of foundation construction in more detail.
When creating a column foundation in the ground, holes are excavated at a distance of 1.5 m from each other. The depth of the pits is 50-70 cm. When the bottom of the pits is tamped, a 15-cm layer of sand and a 15-cm layer of crushed stone are poured there. Next, a screed of mortar 5 cm thick is created on the rubble. This screed can be further reinforced with reinforcement. When the solution dries up, they begin to erect masonry made of red brick.
When creating a strip foundation in the ground, a trench is digging along the perimeter of the future extension. Depth, layers of sand and gravel are exactly the same as when creating the columnar foundation. The width of the trench is 20-30% wider than the walls of the future extension. A wooden formwork is being erected along the edges of the trench. A reinforcement cage is created inside the trench.
If we are dealing with a site in which groundwater is relatively shallow (or even in a quicksand), a pile foundation will do. For easy extension we choose steel screw piles, for heavy extension - reinforced concrete piles.
Building walls for the extension
One of the important stages of the construction started is the construction of walls for the extension. If a brick is chosen as the main material, the construction steps will be as follows:
- The surface of the annex foundation is covered with a layer of waterproofing.
- The very first brick is installed on the extension grill, at the junction with main house. A layer of mortar is evenly applied to the waterproofing with a trowel. A mortar layer is also applied to one of the bumps. The brick is taken with two hands and mounted on a grillage. The mortar of the brick with the mortar should be adjacent to the wall. The brick must be aligned vertically and horizontally. To do this, use the building level. You can level the brick with your hands or by tapping it with a hammer.
- The second brick is installed on the corner of the grill closest to the first brick. After both bricks are perfectly aligned, a thread is stretched between them, along the outer spoon face. This thread is needed in order to control the alignment of the created brick row.
- The first row is laid out. The thickness of the mortar layer between the bricks should be approximately 1 cm. Excess mortar that appears when the brick is pressed in is removed with a trowel and sent to a mixing tank.
- The subsequent brick rows are laid out in a checkerboard pattern.
The walls are erected evenly. It is recommended to lay 8-10 brick rows in one day, and then give the mortar time to harden.
If wood is chosen as the material, the construction of walls for the extension can be done using two methods: frame-panel and crown .
The frame-shield method consists in forming the skeleton of the future extension and attaching special shields to this skeleton. The material from which the frame is created is a bar or boards. Creating a frame begins with the installation of corner posts, which are installed in the form of a rectangular triangle. The material is fastened together using nails, self-tapping screws, steel corners, brackets.
When creating frame walls, it is necessary to prepare boards of the right size in advance. For this purpose, a cutting table-workbench with a circular saw is mounted near the annex. All material trimming will be carried out at the workbench.
Often, the boards brought from the sawmill have not enough even ends. These ends must be trimmed (aligned).
The crown method consists in forming a quadrangular" well ", which is formed using a horizontally located beam, boards or logs. The required height from floor to ceiling is determined by the number of crowns created. This method of construction can be implemented, as before, without resorting to the use of modern fasteners, that is, to build a structure without a single nail.
Roof for an extension
There are several types of roofs: single-pitched, gable , four-pitched, broken (complex).
In practice, a single-pitched or gable roof is most often used for an extension.
A single-pitched roof is simpler to implement, but its installation does not imply a complete attic or the attic. The angle of inclination of such a roof is from 10 to 30 degrees. The pitched roof is mounted as follows:
- Two load-bearing beams are installed on two opposite walls, with one beam above the other.
- The rafters are mounted on the beams. For reliable fixing on the ends of rafters special cuts are created. With the help of cuts, coupling with beams occurs. Additionally, the entire structure is fastened with the help of corners, screws and nails. The distance between the rafters should be 50-70 cm.
- A layer of waterproofing is applied on top of the rafters, which is fixed with a crate.
- A roof covering is applied to the crate, which can be slate, galvanized iron shingles. After installation of the roofing, work on the outside of the roof is completed.
Work on the inside of the roof is connected with the insulation of the extension. For this, a lower crate is created, to which the thermal insulation is attached. A vapor barrier layer is applied to the insulation, then the finishing cladding of the extension ceiling is mounted.
The gable roof, unlike the single-pitch roof, has a ridge in the middle of the entire structure, and two other beams are located on the same level. From the ridge left and right rafters depart. The ridge is fixed with racks, crossbars, struts and rafters.
The subsequent installation of insulation layers, vapor barrier, etc. - is similar to the installation of a shed roof.