By type, all grape wines are divided according to the European classification adopted in France. According to it, wines are divided into two fundamental groups: sparkling (containing dissolved carbon dioxide, which is formed in wine during natural fermentation and not specially removed) and still (not containing carbon dioxide). The group of still wines falls into three subgroups: natural, liqueur and aromatic. Natural still wines are the simplest wines that are obtained naturally: fermenting grape juice with yeast, which turns sugar into alcohol. The strength of still wines ranges from 8 to 15 degrees. All table wines are of this type. On the basis of quiet natural make liquor (fortified) and aromatized wines. The strength of liquor is 15-20 degrees. They achieve this by adding soft drinks, most often brandy, to quiet, natural wine. Liqueur wines include Madeira, sherry, port, Marsala. Aromatic wines are obtained by adding spices, herbs and spices and a little grape spirit to quiet natural ones. The most famous flavored wines are vermouth .Most famous sparkling wine is champagne.
Each wine has its own style, which means two things: the color of the wine ( white , pink , red) and the degree of its sweetness (dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet , sweet). White wine can be obtained from grapes of any variety. The main thing is the way it is processed. When processing white wine, the squeezed grape juice is immediately filtered and wanders without pulp (peel). The color of white wine varies from cognac to light straw. Wine with a reddish tinge is called red. Its color ranges from dense ruby ​​to pale scarlet. Red wines are made from red grape varieties, and squeezed juice wanders along with the skin. Pink wines are made from red grapes "in white". The wort roams with the pulp for only a few hours, then the pulp is removed. The colors of rosé wines range from pale red to pinkish-pale. Most natural wines are dry. All sugar contained in them is "dry" fermented into alcohol. There are natural semi-sweet or semi-dry wines in which sugar remains - due to the natural characteristics of the grape variety. But, unfortunately, such wines are very rare and expensive. Most semi-dry and semi-sweet wines are prepared using artificial braking of fermentation.
By composition, Europe divides wines into blended wines (made from a mixture of different grape varieties) and seperated wines (varietal made from one grape variety). If the wine was named according to the variety of grapes, for example cabernet or merlot, then it is varietal, or sepage. When buying separable wine, you know roughly what to expect from it, based on the characteristics of the grape variety. It should be borne in mind that not every grape variety produces a harmonious wine. It is interesting that a mixture of rough, disharmonious wines can produce an amazing fragrant product with a wonderful taste. On the label on the back of the bottle you can read what grape varieties were used to make the blend.
By age, the wines are divided into young and aged. The beginning of the aging period is considered to be January 1 of the year following the harvest. Young wines are sold before this date. Ordinary (wines without aging) are sold from January 1 of the year following the harvest. Aged - these are wines that are aged for at least six months. Wines made from first-class grapes and aged in barrels for at least 18 months are called vintage. The best samples of such wines fall into the collection category, which is supposed to have an additional aging of at least three years. This classification is not entirely perfect, since low-grade wines, ordinary wines, and high-quality wines that simply do not need long aging can be ranked as wines.
According to the same European classification, wines are divided by place of origin. When buying a bottle of wine in a store, carefully study the label. If the place of origin of the wine is not indicated, it is the lowest quality wine, which, according to European standards, is called table wine. For us it is an ordinary natural wine. For Europeans, this is a synonym for low-grade, cheap mash, a bottle of which costs no more than one or two dollars. When the place of origin is indicated on the label (local wines), this means that the quality of this wine is much higher than that of the table wine. After all, indicating the place of origin of their drink on the label, the manufacturer must have a license that confirms that his wine meets the standard parameters for this region. If the label indicates the place of origin of the wine, which also gives an idea of ​​the type of drink - this means that you have wine guaranteed top quality. To assign this category, the wine must be made from strictly defined grape varieties, in accordance with the standards for its cultivation, adopted for a particular area. Such wines have an original bouquet and a specific taste, characteristic only for the area indicated in the name of the drink.