The article will discuss the indicators of PSA in prostate adenoma. Such a blood test is performed to exclude the malignant nature of the tumor. If cancer cells are present in a man’s prostate, she begins to synthesize a large amount of glycoprotein, which is a prostate-specific antigen.
The PSA values for prostate adenoma depend on the age of the patient. It should be understood that it is impossible to establish an accurate diagnosis based on the results of only one study. Deviation from the norm only indicates the need for other diagnostic procedures: biopsies, MRI, CT.
The importance of PSA in the diagnosis of pathology
First, why do we need to donate blood for PSA with prostate adenoma .
Cancer, inflammation, BPH are characterized by similar signs, therefore, determining the exact diagnosis and prescribing therapy without a thorough diagnosis is impossible. With prostate adenoma, oncology, prostatitis in men, the following clinical symptoms are noted:
- General worsening (insomnia, poor appetite, depression, weakness).
- Discharge from the penis that has blood streaks, purulent or mucous in nature.
- Deterioration potency (delayed ejaculation, premature ejaculation, lack of arousal, weakened libido).
- Difficult urination, accompanied by a constant feeling of a full bladder I.
- The soreness in the groin, lower abdomen, aggravated by erections and walk to the bathroom.
The increased size of the prostate can be detected by a urologist during rectal examination. However, it is impossible to determine what kind of tumor the tumor is (benign or malignant) by probing. Therefore, the patient is recommended to take a blood sample for examination on the level of PSA with prostate adenoma.
Why do small deviations occur?
Small deviations from normal values are not cause for concern. Often this happens under the influence of external factors: physical exertion, excitement, massage, recent sexual contact. Repeated examination, if the excess is not triggered by the disease, will show a normal result.
Hyperplasia, exacerbation of prostatitis or cancer?
If the deviation is large and is 20-40% higher than normal, then we can assume hyperplasia or exacerbation of prostatitis. Excessive excess (several times) indicates the likelihood of developing cancer.
The level of PSA is analyzed in parallel with other data studied: biopsy, CT, ultrasound, biochemical examination of urine and blood samples. The specialist can make a final diagnosis only on the basis of the results of a comprehensive examination.
Cancer, prostatitis, adenoma at the initial stages of their development are usually asymptomatic, therefore it is recommended that men be examined by a urologist and take PSA tests every year prevention purposes. If a person is at risk (after exposure, with irregular sex life, sedentary work), then a routine examination should be done every six months. Men more than 50 years old need to be tested more often.
Preparation for the study
Prior preparation of the biomaterial is necessary to determine the exact PSA level for a man. Distortion of the results can occur if on the eve of a digital examination of the prostate, rectal massage. Therefore, biomaterial should be taken at least a day after these procedures. In addition, you should consider:
- Before the PSA test, antibiotics, hormonal drugs against tumors, and drugs that can suppress androgen synthesis should not be taken for two weeks.
- a study if infectious pathologies (in particular, the genitourinary tract) are in the acute phase.
- An increased level of antigen after a biopsy persists for 20 days. During this period, it does not make sense to examine blood for a prostate-specific antigen.
A day before the delivery of biomaterial, a man is advised to refuse sex and sports training. In addition, excitement and stress must be avoided. Food during the day before sampling a blood sample is necessary to eat non-acute and non-greasy. It is equally important to give up alcohol (even weak) and smoking. Within 8 hours before taking a blood sample, only plain water without gas is allowed.
Submission of biomaterial
To determine the level of PSA, you will need to donate venous blood. This procedure takes no more than 5 minutes. The nurse first imposes a tourniquet on the area above the elbow, then treats the skin at the puncture site with alcohol.
Take 3-5 ml of blood. Research in the laboratory is carried out on the day of biomaterial sampling. The very next morning, the patient can get the results of the study. If the clinic is private, then for a fee, the result can be obtained within a few hours.
Now about what the PSA should be with normal prostate adenoma.
Deviations from the norm
This antigen is constantly producing the prostate. It accumulates in the blood and seminal fluid. The PSA rate for prostate adenoma depends on age.
If a man has any pathology, then the number the synthesized antigen increases significantly. In laboratories, for the purpose of diagnosis, the biomaterial is subjected to certain manipulations, which allow not only to calculate the PSA level, but also to determine in what proportions its fractions are present. This makes it possible to identify the degree of risk separately for cancer, adenoma, prostatitis.
An important indicator is the proportion of the content in the blood of free and specific PSA. Such names have antigen states. It may be bound to alpha-1-antichymotrypsin or another plasma protein, or it may remain free. With moderate excess, a benign prostate tumor is most often diagnosed. If a very high PSA is found with prostate adenoma, then the likelihood of cancerous growth increases. Given the ratio of fractions to the general level, the diagnostician can determine the percentage probability of developing adenoma or oncology.
PSA indicators for prostate adenoma taking into account age
In the process of deciphering the results, the specialist first of all takes into account two main indicators: the ratio of each PSA fraction to its overall level, as well as a comparison with age norms. To determine the latter, the established indicators of total PSA for men are used:
- 19-40 years old - 1.4 ng / ml;
- 40-59 - 2.5 ng / ml ;
- 60-69 years old - 3.5 ng / ml;
- from 70 years old - 6.5 ng / ml.
The likelihood of cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia can be excluded if the concentration of free PSA exceeds the level of total PSA by 26%. If the specified parameter is in the range of 10-26%, then the likelihood of adenoma or prostatitis is quite high. For oncological pathologies, this indicator is less than 10%.
Increased PSA with prostate adenoma by 0.2-1 points from the norm indicator may indicate the likelihood of developing prostate pathologies, but this probability is only 8%. If the indicator is exceeded by 3-4 points, then almost certainly the patient has a urological disease (70% - that this is hyperplasia or prostatitis, 30% - oncology). Exceeding more than 4 points (80%) indicates that cancer is most likely present. The worst indicator is a PSA result in excess of 30 ng / ml - the probability of having oncology is 94% or more.
In order to determine the exact reasons for the increase in antigen concentration in the blood, the patient is prescribed clarifying research. Cancer and adenoma can be differentiated using TRUS, CT, MRI, biopsy of prostate tissue. Having received the results of all diagnostic procedures, the doctor analyzes the dependence of PSA on the size and condition of the prostate, determines the exact diagnosis and prescribes the necessary therapy: preventive monitoring, medication, physiotherapy, surgery.
If the patient underwent surgery on the prostate (in particular, prostatectomy), he should regularly take blood samples for examination. This is required for the timely detection of the re-development of pathology (in about 40% of patients undergoing RPE, relapse occurs, and in 95% of cases within the next 5 years after surgical therapy).
Patients after surgery have normal rates PSA are significantly different from PSA in healthy men. It is necessary to take an analysis at least a month and a half after surgery (conducting a study earlier than this period does not make sense - the result will be distorted). After prostatectomy, the optimal volume of antigen synthesis should be no more than 0.2 ng / ml if the man is less than 60 years old, and 0.5-0.7 ng / ml if the patient is older than 60 years.
When the prostate is completely removed
In the case when the man was completely removed the prostate (performed radical prostatectomy), PSA should always be at 0 ng / ml. Any deviation from the indicated concentration indicates the likelihood of developing cancer: more than 0.2 ng / ml - the probability is 25%, more than 0.5 ng / ml - 78%.
About how to reduce PSA with prostate adenoma, will be described below.
Ways to reduce the concentration of PSA
There are several ways to reduce the concentration of antigen in the blood. However, it should be borne in mind that these methods allow you to get only a short-term result that lasts several days. After this, the concentration of PSA returns to its previous value.
You can lower the antigen by consuming only certain foods during the day: green tea, broccoli, tomatoes, pomegranate. In this case, the concentration of PSA will decrease by 0.2-0.4 points. In addition, you can reduce the level of antigen using thiazide diuretic drugs and drugs that can lower cholesterol.
You should not perceive the described methods as a means of therapy. This is due to the fact that for a permanent decrease in PSA levels, removal of prostate adenoma is necessary. This antigen is just an indicator of pathology. Eliminating it also leads to the normalization of glycoprotein levels.
So, how to reduce PSA in prostate adenoma? The best way to treat adenoma is surgery.
With the help of medications, you can only stop the process of prostate growth. For this purpose, drugs that inhibit 5-alpha-reductase, androgenic drugs, for example, Testosterone Propionate, Raveron, Methyltestosterone, can be used. Some folk remedies can also prevent the development of adenoma, the use of which should be agreed with the doctor:
- Asparagus and pumpkin seeds. The likelihood of developing BPH falls by 20% if you use these products at least 3-4 times a week.
- An infusion made from lemon peels and garlic. To make the product, half a liter of water should be filled with zest of 1 lemon and 10 cloves of garlic. You need to drink the product once a day for 20 ml.
- Gruel from walnuts and honey. Eat 2 tablespoons daily.
It is important to understand that self-treatment of the disease can not only be useless, but also provoke complications. In this regard, it is necessary to periodically undergo preventive examinations by a urologist and timely pass the necessary tests. Only in this way will a man of any age be able to maintain the necessary PSA level with prostate adenoma.