More than four hundred years ago, the famous scientist Levenguk spermatozoa were found in seminal fluid. Doctors have long been considered to be a variety of pathological microscopic organisms until their role in fertilization processes has been proven. Since then, the attention of all scientists has been constantly focused on these amazing cells, because it is they who give rise to a new life.
In the article, we consider the time of sperm maturation.
The process of a lifetime
The process of sperm maturation occurs in men throughout life. Before the onset of sexual development, its quantity is very small, and then sperm is actively produced during the adult period. At about the age of six, the testicles can begin to produce spermatogonia, and spermatogenesis can fully stabilize only by the age of fifteen. In old age, the male body produces very little sperm, however, this process does not stop by itself. We will tell about the features of this process further, and also find out what is the sequence of formation of this biological substance and get acquainted with the stages of sperm maturation.
General information about sperm and sperm
About three percent of the total sperm is exclusively sperm. They are usually excreted along with sperm against the background of each ejaculation. About 80 million mature sexual cells can be in one ejaculation, with the highest concentration being in the first portion of ejaculates. The main role of sperm is to be a nutrient medium during sperm maturation. For these purposes, a whole mass of various useful substances is observed in it. We are talking about ascorbic and lactic acid, fructose, vitamin B12 and so on.
Not everyone knows how long spermatozoa mature. For the male body it is extremely important that this process is fully ensured, since it is they who carry the genetic information about the future baby. These elements act as one of the most specific cells, because for a number of all their characteristics they are not at all similar to other eukaryotes, for example, the following should be noted:
- All sperm cells have special organelles.
- Such cells can move independently.
- Possess a half set of chromosomes.
Such features make spermatozoa absolutely unique eukaryotes living according to their own laws. And, despite the fact that they differ from somatic cells, they still obey the processes that occur in the body. For example, sperm is best ripened at a temperature of thirty-four degrees, which is different from other eukaryotes. We will tell you how long sperm cells mature in men.
True, like all other cells in the body, the sexes are also exposed to the negative effects of external factors like alcoholism, smoking, and drinking drugs, the transfer of severe infectious pathologies by a man, and so on.
Features of the education process
Sperm maturation of the male body has long been an extremely poorly understood process. Now scientists have a chance to fully present the picture of the transformation of germ cells into full-fledged carriers of genetic information and participants in the fertilization process. This provides an opportunity not only to understand and treat infertility in men, but also allows you to intervene in the sacrament of conception in the event that one of the couple suffers from pathologies, and procreation is impossible in a natural way. It is worth noting that the use of alcohol has a very negative effect on sperm.
It takes almost three months for the sperm to mature for conception in men. During this period, spermatozoa undergo a cycle of their development in the testes (seventy-two days) and in the appendages (twelve days). Only after that they can move towards the seminal vesicles, and then into the prostate gland. Ripe eukaryotes, one can say, are waiting in the wings directly in the epididymis, however, they also have a limited functioning time, which equals a period of slightly less than a month. Following sperm maturation, they begin to age, after which they die immediately.
Since sperm have a rather long period of development, it is recommended that men directly lead a healthy lifestyle at least three months before the onset of the alleged intimate act to conceive a healthy offspring. Such a long period of spermatogenesis, during which the maturation of eukaryotes occurs, more than pays off the productivity of the man’s body. In just one minute, the body of a healthy adult male produces about fifty thousand sperm, and two and a half million per day. And in one month, approximately seventy-two million germ cells appear. Here is the sperm maturation period.
Next, we will consider the main stages of development of male cells.
It is worth noting that the sperm maturation cycle in men is extremely complex. It obeys several biological processes, bearing the name spermatogenesis. At its core, sperm maturation processes are a period of development of the sexual elements in men, which occurs according to strict hormonal, and, in addition, genetic prescriptions, which are regulated by the time frame. As a rule, the maturation of these male cells occurs in five stages.
At the first, the procedure of committing the spermatogonial element and updating takes place. In the second, apoptosis with proliferation can be observed. The third stage of sperm maturation is usually characterized by meiosis and differentiation. The final two periods are sperm repair and regeneration. The key essence of male cell maturation is the formation of a significant number of elements capable of transmitting genetic information.
The sequence of sperm maturation
A certain sequence of stages that qualitatively differ from each other is passed through spermatozoa. These include:
- Stage of maturation of primary germ cells.
- Stage of gonocyte.
- Stage of stem spermatogonial cells.
- Pregenitoric spermatogonial cells.
- Stage of differentiating spermatogonia.
- Stage of meiocyte.
- Maturation of mature spermatozoa.
It is worth noting that absolutely each of these periods is extremely important m, as a failure in any of them can result in the development of defective cells. In most situations, such sexual units die either at one of the stages of their maturation, without completing it, or appear to be non-viable elements, and at the same time weak in the struggle for the egg. Now let's talk about sperm conversion processes and sperm maturation time.
Male genital cell transformation process and timing
The process of sperm formation usually begins with the division of stem cells called spermatogonia. Following them, through meiosis, the subsequent elements are divided. Sexual eukaryotes multiply exponentially, as a result of this, when a number equal to sixteen cells is reached, they are qualitatively transformed. Each species is indicated by scientists with the letter “A” and certain symbols in order to conveniently indicate the stage at which the ripening cells are located. And directly the maturity of spermatozoa is indicated by Roman symbols. In each of the subsequent stages, a cell population is formed, which has common signs and functions. It is worth briefly describing the stages of sperm maturation:
- The period from the first to the third stage is the time of maturation of four generations of future sperm. This stage, as a rule, ends with the formation of immature spermatids. This cycle lasts sixteen days. It is worth emphasizing that it is in this period that the future sperm is the most vulnerable to internal and external factors. During a complex process, the chromosomes are shortened and thickened, the nucleus disappears, and at the same time its shell dissolves. Cell growth is inhibited, and the highest degree of condensation is achieved by the genetic system.
- Starting from the fourth to eighth stage, as many as five generations of germ cells mature, which ultimately ends with the formation of a sperm. This period consists of seventy days. During this period, the structure of the cell nucleus changes, and in addition, the genome gradually turns off and chromatin condenses, acrosomes form, and the main part of the cytoplasm is shed by spermatozoa.
At the described stages of maturation, the usual eukaryote forms a species that looks like a body with a rounded head and tail, quite viable to participate in fertilization.
How long does it take for sperm to mature, now we know.
Man is one of the few living creatures in which sperm formation occurs with regular and enviable constancy. True, sperm in humans are the least effective in the issue of fertilization, since seventy-five percent of the formed germ cells ultimately die and age, and more than half carry a defect that does not allow them to actively and successfully participate in the fertilization process. Scientists have calculated that only twelve percent of mature eukaryotes serve as good candidates for fertilization processes.
With age, the number of such spermatozoa in men is constantly decreasing, due to a decrease in sertoli cells - these are specific somatic elements that are involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis , in particular, they seem to recycle dead sexual structures. It is also interesting to note that over the past sixty years the number of healthy representatives has become exactly half, and in this connection every twentieth European can suffer from infertility.
Stay in the ejaculate
After the reproductive cell has matured, it is transferred through the vas deferens directly into the semen. Sperm matures, usually about fourteen days. It is worth noting that it takes so much to travel the sperm to the ejaculate.
Being in the ejaculate, the male sex cells are not very active. Sperm flagella move very weakly as far as possible in order to conserve energy. Since such movements are not productive, muscles that make a wave-like peristaltic movement help them move along the seminiferous tubules and the vas deferens. Small cilia, which are located on the walls of the ducts, also facilitate movement. Without the help of cilia and muscles, the sperm could not get to the ejaculate quickly. Sperm provides the sperm with a protective function.
The activity of all ripened eukaryotes is usually given by prostatic juice rich in useful enzymes. During intercourse from vas deferens , up to 6 milligrams of sperm is secreted, which equals approximately two tablespoons. The amount of sperm directly depends on how many days there was no intimate contact. As a rule, the volume of sperm after prolonged abstinence is greater. Quite a lot of germ cells penetrate into the vagina during one sexual contact, namely about six hundred million mature spermatozoa that are potentially able to fertilize the egg.
Since even matured eukaryotes are not protected from negative external influences, they are very deeply immersed in gonadal products, that is, in semen. It is this substance that provides protection to mature male cells from an extremely unfriendly acidic environment in the vagina, in which a significant proportion of spermatozoa die, one way or another.
Only the most viable individuals that have good energy reserves and advance nutrient components for the necessary fertilization. Thus, the process of spermatogenesis is a rather complicated multi-stage period, as a result of which mature spermatozoa mature in men, which are able to fertilize and transmit the necessary genetic information.
How does it end?
When does it end the period of sperm maturation, the cells enter the appendages, where they must finally form, and then wait during the ejaculation of their turn. The appendages of the testicles play a very large role in the formation of full-fledged male cells. They are some tubules, which are collected in the form of a tourniquet above the surface of the testicles. They release fluid, which allows male sex cells to move actively. However, sperm while entering the appendages are not yet able to move actively in a certain direction, but only move in a circle. In order for them to swim, at least twelve days must pass. During this period, sperm gradually pass through the channels of the appendages, where they are completely saturated with a nutrient medium, then they mature and gain the ability to move correctly.
Mature male sex cells in sperm do not always have an ideal structure. Some of them can detect different deformations in the form of an uneven head, and at the same time, the position of the tail or the chaotic movement is incorrect. True, this is not at all a significant deviation from the norm. It is believed that fifty percent of spermatozoa form with various kinds of disorders, but this does not at all interfere with the full fertilization of the egg, and the differences and distinctive shape of the head do not affect the genetic information contained in it. This deformation is explained by the fact that at the final stage of ripening, the head is extremely tight against the sertoli.
Thus, concluding the topic, it is worth summarizing that the sperm maturation period is seventy-four days, and then continues in the appendages for twelve days. How many days in general such a process continues, it is very difficult to answer. On average, the process of full maturation of the sperm, and hence the renewal of male fluid, takes about three months. Mature sperm, as a rule, accumulate in the appendages. In the event that no release occurs within one month, then they begin to age and collapse very quickly, and the resulting proteins and other components are simply absorbed by the testes. Spermatozoa that carry the "Y" chromosome in themselves are called androspermia, and with the element "X", gynospermia. The possibility of penetration of one or another sperm into the female egg is almost the same, which means that it is simply impossible to predict in advance which of them will achieve their goal before anyone else.
We examined the duration of sperm maturation.