Floor repair is a responsible undertaking. Especially when it comes to such an old building as Stalin. It is necessary to consider the technology for carrying out such work. The advice of professional builders will help you to carefully study all the stages of repairing the floor in the stalin. This will help to avoid mistakes, get a solid foundation in the premises. The features of this work will be discussed later.
Types of floors
With the subsidence of the floor in the stalin almost all the owners of this housing face. Over time, any material, even the highest quality, wears out. Therefore, the owners of such housing are forced to carry out major repairs. Old buildings that were built in the USSR are called stalins.
They were built until the sixties of the last century. Stalinok has several distinctive features. They have high ceilings, large windows. These apartments have spacious rooms. Interfloor ceilings were erected from different materials. In most cases, it was natural wood.
There are only three types of flooring that can be found in stalinkas:
- Floors covered with artificial materials. This, for example, can be linoleum, laminate, as well as other similar materials.
- Parquet board. It can also be a piece, panel or typeset parquet.
- Board floor. Such a coating could be mounted from a floor rail. But more often, edged planed boards were used for these purposes.
In Stalin, a variety of materials were used during construction. At the same time, many houses of this type underwent restoration. During the overhaul, many materials were subject to replacement. So, often wooden floors changed to reinforced concrete structures. Therefore, before starting repairs, you need to assess the condition of the wooden logs. These are the boards on which the floor is laid. They are always present in the construction of the floor in the steel buildings, which were built in the thirties of the last century.
In buildings that were erected after the fifties, it was already provided for the presence of reinforced concrete floors.
It should be noted that the most common type of floor in the presented buildings is a boardwalk.
Types of repair
Having determined which floors in the stalinkas were mounted in most cases, you need to consider the methodology for their repair.
It can be different. The choice of methodology depends on the degree of deterioration of the coating, its type and other aspects. Repairs may be as follows:
- Small. In a wooden flooring, small defects are closed, cracked, cracked, cracked. During such repairs, it may be necessary to replace the baseboard.
- Medium. Some parts of the floor that have become unusable require replacement. For example, it can be floorboards, as well as some rotten lags.
- Capital. Complete replacement of the floor or a significant part of it.
Repairing floors in a steel platform with wooden floors is somewhat different from the technique used in the presence of a reinforced concrete base. However, in any case, the whole process is divided into three stages. The first of these is preparation. The following are major repairs. The final step is cleaning.
Preparation for this process involves an inspection of the sexes. At this stage, defects are identified, which determines the list of necessary works. After that, you can purchase the required amount of materials. For this, a preliminary cost estimate is prepared.
In the course of the main work, the identified defects are eliminated. Actions at this stage are performed in a certain sequence. When the tasks initially set are completed, you need to remove the floor. It remains construction debris, which must be removed from the apartment. After that, the floors are washed and operated.
Materials for repairing the wooden floor
Before you begin, you need to prepare everything you need.
Repairing a parquet floor or other types of wood flooring requires the use of conifers. To perform this procedure, you need to purchase the following materials:
- Edged planed board. Its thickness must be at least 40 mm.
- Floor rail. This is a planed edged board of a tongue-and-groove type. On the one hand, it has a groove, and on the other, a solid tongue. The thickness of the slats is 40 mm.
- Lags. This is a beam that can have a section with a size of 5x5 or 5x7 cm.
- Waterproofing. Do not use artificial materials for these purposes. As a waterproofing, as well as insulation, expanded clay or its analogues can be used.
Almost always it is required to install a new baseboard when replacing the floor in the steel. It performs a decorative function. The skirting board also conceals the gap between the wall and the floor. s choice depends on the materials of the base.
The baseboard can be plastic or wooden. The second option goes well with a parquet board or other natural flooring. However, a skirting board made of natural wood has many disadvantages. He is quite moody, can be covered with scratches, dents and other defects. A wooden baseboard is easy to break, so its plastic counterparts are more often used. Such elements of floor decoration are more durable, easier to install. The plastic skirting board is easy to handle, install and dismantle. Also, it does not require painting.
Processing of natural material
When considering the installation of floors in stalin, it should be noted the need to choose the right building materials. They must be handled correctly. Otherwise, the natural material will deform, quickly lose its attractive appearance.
Wood that was poorly dried, with time will lose moisture. Because of this, its dimensions will vary significantly. Boards will no longer make up a single, smooth finish. In places, their edges will protrude above the surface, cracks will appear.
Also, without proper processing, the wood may become moldy, fungus, especially if the room is high in humidity. It may be susceptible to attacks by insects, rodents. This significantly affects the appearance and reduces the life of the floor.
Therefore, during the repair of parquet floors or other finishes made from natural materials, you need to purchase wood that is well-dried and soaked with appropriate compounds. It is worth noting that it is not possible to dry natural material on your own. To do this, use special equipment.
But here you can soak wood with antiseptic and fire-fighting solutions on your own. To do this, before starting the installation you need to process it with special compounds. They are purchased at a hardware store. An antiseptic will protect natural material from fungus and spoilage by insects. Fire retardant protects wood from fire. This is a mandatory fire safety requirement.
It is not always necessary to dismantle the floor in the stalin. If the defects are relatively small, the coating is still strong enough, there are no creaks and sagging, you need to perform minor repairs. First, inspect the entire floor, revealing visible damage. In these places, a layer of paint or varnish is removed. Professional builders recommend removing the decorative layer from the entire flooring. Otherwise, you may not notice other damage under the paint.
It is also worth considering that the new layer of decorative coating will be different from the old. Therefore, the appearance of such a floor will be unaesthetic. To avoid this, the paintwork is removed from the entire surface of the floor. To do this, use a looping machine.
Performing minor repairs of the floor in the stalin, you need to clean places with defects from dirt. Next, putty on wood is required. Its color should match the flooring. Putty close up cracks, creating an even layer on the surface. It dries in a day.
Then the surface of the floor is ground. First, large sandpaper is used, and then fine. Then the floor is washed and dried. After that, it can be primed and painted with a suitable composition. If the baseboard is damaged, it is removed completely. It is necessary to mount new decorative strips around the perimeter. The choice of their color must be approached responsibly. You can choose a contrasting or similar shade to wood.
How to level the floor in the stalin? In this case, you need to carry out an average repair. Also, similar work must be performed if the floor began to bend and creak. The reason for this may be a rotten lag or a board. It is easy to spot. You need to remove the nails and get the board. If there are no defects on it, the reason is the lag.
During an average repair, do not disassemble the entire floor have to. If the lag rotted in only one place, you can substitute a lining under it in this place. After that, you will need to level the floor.
The problem area needs to be cut out. Here establish a piece of timber of the appropriate size. Mount the board on top. It is held together with a lag using self-tapping screws. The floor level needs to be leveled.
Often the lags do not need to be changed. Only some floorboards are subject to replacement. Select the material with the appropriate sizes.
If the floor is made of slats, you can cut out the rotten board with an electric jigsaw. Instead, an edging board with the appropriate dimensions is installed here. If the problem is in the lag, you also need to cut out a section of the reiki. But more often in this case, you need to disassemble the floor completely.
When the boards are mounted on the logs, aligned using the building level, you need to close the gap between them with putty. When the mortar dries, the surface is polished and painted.
If the coating creaks strongly, there are significant deformations and defects, significant elevations and so on, a major overhaul of the floors in the stalin . This procedure can be done in many ways. This takes into account the overlap material.
So, if there was a wooden floor below the floor, you can lay a wooden structure from lags and boards or level the level with a screed.
First you need to dismantle the old coating. Remove the flooring from the boards, remove the logs. Between them there can be a lot of garbage, dust and dirt. All unnecessary needs to be removed. If the logs are not completely damaged, they can be repaired. It is important that their ends are durable. Often, even in old houses, the logs are in fairly good condition.
If a decision is made on the installation of the screed, it should be light. It is impossible to fill in a too thick layer, since the load on the overlap will increase. A screed up to 4 cm thick is needed. A layer that is too thin will not be strong, so it also will not work.
First, waterproofing is spread over the surface of the prepared ceiling. She should go to the walls. A layer of expanded clay with a thickness of 10-20 cm is covered with it. It needs to be leveled, tamped. Expanded clay is poured with cement milk for bonding.
The metal mesh is stretched over the entire surface of the floor. It should have cells measuring 5x5 cm. The mesh will lie on the logs. Next, lay (do not fill in) the screed layer 4 cm. Using it, level the floor surface.
Using OSB plates
You can repair the floor in the steel without using the screed. This option is simpler and safer. When using a screed, there is a possibility that the weight will not be calculated correctly. Because of this, a significant load will act on the overlap. Using OSB boards is the best option when there is a wooden floor.
First you need to remove the heavy debris that was under the floor. You need to dial the frame across the beams. Withstand a step of 40 cm between the supporting structural elements. Swings are aligned using pads. They are made of boards.
After that, new lags are mounted flat. To do this, use a new beam with a cross section of 5x10 cm. It must be dry, properly processed. Holes are drilled in the boards. Their diameter should correspond to the size of the screws. It is best to use 10-12 cm hardware for these purposes. With their help, boards are fixed in the logs.
After that, two layers of OSB boards are mounted. Plywood can be used for these purposes. Plate thickness should be 15 mm. They are laid so that the seams of the upper and lower rows do not match. If the difference in height is determined in old lags, it must be leveled with the help of a crate. To do this, use the building level.
The repair of the floor in the stalin is completed when the top coating is laid on top of the OSB sheets. Most often it is a laminate. A parquet board can also be used.
Reinforced concrete floor
The easiest way is to repair the floor in a steel platform with reinforced concrete floors. In this case, it is less likely that the overlap will not support the weight of the screed. It should be noted that the maximum load in this case is 200 kg / m². It is best to use a light screed in this case. Expanded clay is also used as insulation.
You need to prepare the necessary materials. This is cement, sand and plasticizer. You will also need to purchase the appropriate amount of kermzite (for a layer of 10-15 cm). The reinforcing mesh has 5x5 cm cells. Beacons will be needed, the waterproofing is polyethylene.
The waterproofing can be laid in one or two layers, depending on the thickness of the material. It is not recommended to replace expanded clay with polyethylene balls. They are more expensive, and the weight of the screed will increase. Its layer during such installation will have to be increased.
The waterproofing is lined on the prepared ceiling. If it is necessary to combine several sheets, they are laid out with an overlap, fastened with a stapler and fixed with construction tape. Next, a layer of expanded clay is poured. It is carefully aligned. Stack lighthouses by level. Next, a layer of screed is poured. It must dry properly. To do this, it is closed with a plastic film and watered in the process of solidification. After 3-4 weeks it will be possible to mount the topcoat. It can be any material, such as parquet, laminate, ceramic tiles or other options.