The plastered walls will look neat and aesthetic if you follow all the rules of the technology. In order to achieve a positive result, it will be necessary to do labor-intensive work. Stucco can be done well if you have at least a little practice. If you have not previously been engaged in such manipulations, you need to try your hand at a small area. This technology will allow you to fill your hand a little.
Preparation of tools
Quite often beginner home masters wonder what you need for plastering the walls. If you, too, are among them, then you should know that before starting work it is important to prepare:
- plaster mix;
- screws for wood;
- Phillips screwdriver;
- bubble level;
- aluminum rule;
- steel ironed ;
- acrylic primer;
- wide brush;
- gloves for protecting hands;
- dowels ;
- scissors for metal;
- tape measure.
To make the solution you will need a hammer drill and an adapter with a nozzle. Wood screws should have a rare step. The bubble level should have a length of 2 m. You can replace metal scissors with a grinder. It will be needed for slicing beacons.
What else is important to know
To install the beacons you will need a 2, 5-meter rail and an aluminum 2-meter rule. You should purchase or find in your arsenal a wide 15-centimeter spatula. For processing smooth and concrete walls, a deep penetration primer is required. To apply the primer, you need to take care of the presence of a roller or a wide brush with a bath.
Solution and features of the work. Brick walls
Wall plastering in an apartment can be done on brick walls. Usually cement compositions are used for this, sometimes a certain amount of lime is added to them to give the mixture additional plasticity. Lime is used when work is carried out in conditions of high humidity or outside the building.
Plaster is applied to a brick with a layer of no more than 30 mm. If the coating thickness is more than 20 mm, then under the plaster a reinforcement net should be strengthened to reinforce and hold the mortar. Before plastering the walls in the apartment, it will be necessary to mix the cement mortar, use a part of cement and four parts of sifted sand. Dry ingredients combine with water until a thick consistency is obtained. The mixture should be plastic. When mixing cement-lime composition, two parts of the lime test, one part of cement and five parts of sand should be used. The sand should be combined with cement and mix the dry composition. Then lime is added, everything is mixed together until smooth. If the solution is too thick, some water is allowed to be added, although this technique is not welcome.
The plastering of walls in an apartment on a brick will be more difficult to carry out if the walls are facing material. The mixture may roll off the surface and fall off in pieces. In such a situation, the reinforcing mesh will not save. Such a surface requires special primers and a well-chosen mesh. It is better to entrust such work to specialists who know which material is optimal for a particular surface.
Mortar for concrete wall and features of the work
If the concrete surface has a smooth base, it is prepared by applying a primer with the addition of quartz inclusions. They give the material the roughness required to hold the plaster. Gypsum powder is added to the solution, which increases the adhesion of the mixture to the wall.
The plastering of the walls in the apartment in this case can also be carried out using a lime-gypsum mortar. For its preparation, 1 part of gypsum and 4 parts of lime are used. Such a mixture is prepared in the following order: gypsum is mixed with water. The mass should not be too thick. A lime mortar is poured there, and then everything is mixed until homogeneous.
If a concrete wall has roughnesses, it will not require complicated preparation and a special approach, as well as the use of special compounds. To do this, you can use gypsum or cement plaster mortars. Before applying the plaster, the wall is impregnated with a deep penetration primer. Concrete contact is excellent for this.
Mix for foam concrete and features of the work
If you wondered about , how to plaster the walls with your own hands, you should figure out what material is in front of you. If this is foam concrete, then it is better to treat it with a primer-impregnation. If necessary, a reinforcing fiberglass mesh-serpyanka is mounted on the wall. Gypsum or cement mortar is great for foam concrete. Choosing the composition, you should approach this issue with all responsibility.
Before starting work, you should prepare to clean the walls of the old finish. The plaster should lie well and hold on the surface. Walls of different materials require an individual approach. If cracks are found on the surface after cleaning, they are repaired. Otherwise, the applied plaster will crack in the same place.
Before you plaster the walls with your own hands, you must remove the cracks. This process is carried out in several ways. If the width of the discrepancy is small, it goes deep. The crack should be widened and access to a narrow part in the thickness should be free. The resulting gap is cleaned from dust with a brush and treated with a primer. After the crack is sealed with plaster or cement based putty. The solution is filled with a spatula.
If the crack is narrow, it is sealed with sealant or silicone. Filling is carried out using a nozzle nozzle, which should be directed deep into the cracks. To seal wide cracks, you should use a mounting foam, which is filled with gaps, without waiting for the primer to completely dry.
After a mixture for wall plastering in the apartment was chosen based on the above recommendations, you can proceed with the lighthouses. They will allow you to achieve a perfectly smooth wall. Landmarks are set at the construction level. The distance between them should be 1, 5 m. When leveling the solution, the rule should go along two profiles. The ideal verticality of the profiles can be controlled by a plumb line. If the toolbox has only a short level, you can use a long bar. He is put to the guide. To its middle one should establish a level, align one or the other side of the guide on it. After preparing the wall, you can proceed to the preparation of the mortar.
Preparation of the mixture
Before plastering the walls indoors, it will be necessary to mix the mortar. The first layer is applied by spraying a plaster mixture onto the wall. The process can be carried out with a trowel or manually. In the latter case, rubber gloves should be used. On concrete or brick walls, mortar is poured with a thickness of 5 mm. On wooden walls with a crate, the solution is poured with a thickness of up to 9 mm.
The second layer is called soil. A solution of a doughy consistency is prepared for it. It is applied with a trowel or a wide spatula. The thickness is 8 mm. The finish layer is called a lining and is made of fine sand without large inclusions. The solution should have a creamy consistency. You can purchase the composition for each layer in finished form, which provides components that promote adhesion and strength of the hardened mass.
If you make the solution yourself, you can use the following technology. For a cement-lime mixture, one part of lime, the same amount of cement and 5 parts of sand should be used. If you are still thinking about which plaster to choose for the walls in your apartment, it may be cement mortar. It is prepared from 1 part cement and three parts sand. Lime mortar is prepared from three parts of sand from 1 part of lime.
Mechanical plaster walls are also called mechanized. This method is usually resorted to when the customer sets short deadlines for the work, and the budget is insufficient to attract the right number of workers. The installation for this is delivered to the facility and connected to a 220 V. network. Two specialists are enough to service.
If the areas are large, it is more convenient to work in a certain mode when two craftsmen apply the plaster and the four behind them level the surface. For mechanical plastering of walls, special equipment is used, in the hopper of which dry building mix is poured. The pump delivers the right amount of water, the unit stirs the composition. Through a flexible hose, it is supplied under pressure to the surface. Workers monitor the availability of ingredients and distribute the mortar.
Among other plastering machines, the PFT G5 Super should be highlighted. This is a modular unit for continuous operation with dry mixes for machine application of the composition and pouring self-leveling solutions. The mixture can be supplied during masonry work and manipulations where adhesive mixtures are used. The equipment delivers the mixture in a volume of 6 to 85 liters per minute. The power of the pump is 5.5 kW.
If there is old stucco on the walls
With proper care the layer plaster ready to last up to 20 years. But if cracks appear on the surface, you can repair the surface. Stucco walls with old plaster, although possible, but before starting to finish it is important to make sure the reliability of the old coating. Sometimes it’s not necessary to completely remove the old layer, it is only partially repaired.
The base of the finish must be solid, otherwise the new coating will fall off in pieces along with the previous base. The surface of the masonry should be tapped before starting work. If the sound is dull, the layer holds well and has not moved away from the wall. If the sound is sonorous, it is better to remove the trim in these areas. To remove the plaster, prepare:
- wide spatula;
- spray gun;
If you started a major overhaul of an office, apartment or house, you will encounter the need for plastering . This process is time consuming and requires professional skills. But if you want to save money, then you can finish the walls yourself. Before mixing the mortar, you should familiarize yourself with the plaster manual and prepare all the necessary materials.