If your house has a second floor or attic, you should not be afraid of such an element as a staircase. This design is functional and allows you to move between floors, acting as part of the interior decor. In order to enter the staircase into the project of the house, making it convenient for use, you can use ready-made drawings, but an alternative solution would be to do it yourself.
What is important to think about
A three-march staircase can connect floors between each other. Choosing such a design is not so easy. The house needs not just an element for lifting and lowering, but an aesthetic convenient structure. A particular challenge is the selection of the staircase structure. Before you decide on a particular model, you should return to the design and layout of the premises. Perhaps you have overlooked important aspects, namely, where the flight of stairs will go, whether the model is suitable for the floor design.
The calculation of the three-flight staircase should be based on moments that will play an important role in people's safety. This should include the total number of steps, which can be from 3 to 18, parity is not taken into account. According to step height should not be less than 12 cm, they should not be more than 20 cm, while their total the width is between 23 and 25 cm.
After reviewing the photos of the three-flight stairs, you can simulate the design on the kosoura. If you look at an example where the landing has a length and width of 6000 and 3000 mm, respectively, and the height between the levels is 3300 mm, then the distance between the marches should be made equal to 100 mm. When calculating, it is necessary to take into account that to determine the height of one march, the interfloor height must be divided by 2, which will allow you to get 1650.
The size of the steps in this case will be 150 mm. The number of risers in the march can be determined by dividing the height of one march by the height of the riser. The calculations will look as follows: 1650/150. This will allow you to get 11. The upper march will have one less step, which means that there will be 11 risers in the march. Walk here one less.
Multiplying the width of the tread by the number of steps, you can get the length of the march. 300 mm should be multiplied by 10 pieces, which will allow you to get 3000 mm. Knowing the dimensions of the three-flight staircase, you can change the parameters, but insignificantly. For example, the standard opening width is from 90 to 110 cm. In rare cases, this mark can be reduced to 80 cm.
About the slope
It is also important to consider the angle of inclination. The maximum value of this parameter is 37 °, the minimum value is 29 °. Since a larger angle can save space, you must remember that this reduces the comfort of operation of the stairs. In calculations, it is important to remember the location of window and doorways, arches and columns.
Making the stairs
If you decide to complete the three-flight staircase with two platforms, you can start work with kosourov performance. For this, a 40 mm board is used. First you need to prepare a pattern that will repeat the bends of the steps. Marking is applied to the workpiece. The tooth lines should not have sharp corners. Use a hacksaw to cut out the teeth. The blank can be used as a template by cutting out the rest of the braids.
In order to ensure the strength and safety of the stairs, you should prepare several braces in this way. You can install them in place in the next step. The ends of the kosour should rest against the floor of the first and the base of the second floor. In the manufacture of a three-flight staircase, the next step is to install the railing and steps. The latter can be attached to the kosoura with wooden elements or directly. Before installing them, it is necessary to prepare risers and treads. The risers are the first to be installed, for this you can use nails or self-tapping screws. More reliable is the connection with the help of triangular filly. They are fixed with dowels, under which grooves cut in the braces. For durability, parts should be put on glue and fixed with self-tapping screws.
When all steps are installed at the three-flight staircase, installation of balusters and railings can begin. For their fastening, studs and screws are used. At the final stage, the structure is varnished.
Additional recommendations for the manufacture of stairs on the kosoura
Installation of the marching structure begins after the floor of the first floor is ready, but before the walls are finished. To create a staircase, you should free up space, the size of which will be equal to twice the area of the stairwell. Three-flight staircase can be metal. In this case, the tab of the fragments should be foreseen at the stage of erection of ceilings. The same steel elements are concreted into the subfloor. They will act as the brace of the kosour or bowstring from the bottom.
In a private house it’s easier to do a staircase on the kosour, which is especially true for the case if the steps do not touch the walls. When the kosour is carried out independently, it is attached from above and below, preparing and fixing the steps and railings. If you plan to place the spans in the corner, and rest the steps against the walls, then the calculation is carried out on a string.
First you will need to draw a profile of a string or string on a piece of paper, transferring it to a wooden beam. Next, you will need to do cutting. Bottom and top of the support beam are prepared grooves for mounting. The second bowstring is made, taking into account the finished one as a template. If the second kosour is longer or shorter than the prepared one, the individual elements will become a template.
The base is attached to the supports with anchor bolts. To fix, you need to use a level. After the base has been fixed, you can start assembling the steps.
Staircase - this is a necessary part that connects the floors to each other. If you choose a design of this type, then the solution may not be as simple as it seems at first glance. Before you opt for any model, you should return to the project and layout. Three-march constructions are used less often, because they take up a lot of space, but you can choose one of these solutions if the house is quite spacious.