Focal pneumonia refers to inflammatory processes in the lungs of various etiologies, localized in a separate lobule or in a group of lobules. Most often, focal pneumonia develops after bronchitis as a result of the spread of infection from the bronchi to the lung tissue, therefore lobular pneumonia is called bronchopneumonia.
However, cases of the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the lobules by the hematogenous route are not uncommon. Therefore, pneumonia localized in separate lobules or a group of lobules with mucous or mucopurulent contents in the alveoli should be called focal pneumonia. Focal pneumonia occurs more often than croupous, especially in the elderly and senile.
Disease develops gradually, most often pneumonia is preceded by bronchitis. The addition of pneumonia to it is judged by the appearance of signs of intoxication in the form of feelings of weakness, weakness, headaches and fever. The fever is irregular. It is amplified, then weakened. These temperature fluctuations are caused by the attenuation of processes in some foci and the appearance of new inflammatory processes in the lung tissue.
The elevated temperature lasts from several days to 1-2 weeks and drops lytically. In debilitated patients and the elderly, pneumonia sometimes occurs without a sharp temperature reaction, and sometimes with a normal temperature.
Breathing is quickened and shallow, up to 30-40 per minute. Dyspnea and blueness of the face are observed, depending on the prevalence of the inflammatory process and concomitant bronchitis.
An important sign of pneumonia is chest pain, especially with a rough breath pulled out by concomitant pleurisy, coughing more often with mucopurulent, easily expectorated sputum.
The pulse rate is increased, blood pressure decreases, the state of the cardiovascular system depends on the prevalence of the process.
For focal pneumonia, neutrophilic leukocytosis, accelerated ROEE, at the height of the disease is very characteristic eosin tions in the blood can not be detected. The amount of fibrinogen in the blood is usually normal or only slightly increased.
Patients, if they are conscious, take up a raised body (upper half).
The course of the disease and the complications are different. In some cases, the process ends with recovery within a few days, sometimes lasts for weeks.
In people who are exhausted by a severe infection, and in the elderly, pneumonia is sluggish. Complications of focal pneumonia include abscess, lung gangrene, pneumosclerosis. In difficult and protracted forms of focal pneumonia, it is necessary to differentiate with pulmonary tuberculosis, with effusion pleurisy.