What is kidney prolapse (nephroptosis)

18.05.2020 Medicine
What is kidney prolapse (nephroptosis)

Renal prolapse is caused by a decrease in intra-abdominal pressure, a decrease or disappearance of perinephric fat, poor development of the muscles of the abdomen, or a decrease in its tone, which is especially often observed in women with multiple births who do not observe pregnancy hygiene and very thin people. At the same time, the remaining abdominal organs are simultaneously omitted. The right kidney falls more often than the left. Renal prolapse should be distinguished from their congenital malposition.

Renal prolapse as a disease was first described by the great Russian doctor S.P. Botkin.

Patients complain of dull pains in the upper abdomen, which are often accompanied by nausea, sometimes vomiting, shooting pains in the lumbar region with a return to the thigh, rectum, and external genitalia. Sometimes there are reflected pains in the heart, resembling angina pectoris. On the part of the intestine, there is most often a tendency to constipation, less often to diarrhea. The pain calms down at night, during sleep and rest, that is, in a horizontal position, and, on the contrary, intensifies during walking, during physical exertion, during shaking, which is explained by a large displacement of the kidney. S.P. Botkin pointed out that these long-term ongoing pains lead patients to hysteria.

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When Significant displacements of the kidneys are possible kinks and twisting of the ureter with complete closure of its lumen, which leads to retention of urine of various degrees, stretching of the renal pelvis and creates a risk of infection from the intestine into the renal pelvis with subsequent inflammation. An excess or torsion is accompanied by severe lower back pain with a return to the leg, groin, genitals.

Recognition of the prolapse of the kidneys is facilitated by the fact that the kidneys, which are usually not palpable in healthy people, become palpable during dropping.

When the kidneys lower in the urine, a small amount of protein and red blood cells sometimes appear, but the function of the organ is not impaired.


nutrition, which gives a significant effect when lowering the kidneys of mild degrees. Enhanced nutrition, combined with hygienic gymnastics aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles, in many cases ensures success. Treatment of patients with prolapse of the kidneys should also have a restorative character. Wearing an abdominal brace is recommended. It is forbidden to tighten the abdomen with belts. Only in severe cases, they resort to surgical intervention, which consists in stitching the vagus kidney to the omentum. Nephroptosis does not lead to disability or reduced work skills.


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