What is urethritis in men? This is an inflammatory disease that manifests by cutting and burning during urination. If untreated, the acute form can transform into a chronic one, which is dangerous with serious complications.
What is urethritis in men? This is inflammation of the urethra. To answer the question in more detail, you need to understand the male genitourinary system.
The urethra is the urinary canal. It is represented by a hollow tube with a bend. Its length can vary from 16 to 24 cm, and the width is not more than 8 mm. Microbes, fungi and viruses can settle on the walls of the duct, causing an inflammatory process on the mucosa. Due to the structural features of the urethra, pathogenic microflora multiplies rapidly. This leads to swelling of the mucosa and urinary retention. As a result, a man regularly experiences pain.
The main causes
In men and women, the disease has different manifestations, due to the anatomical features of the body. In the fair sex, urethritis is almost asymptomatic. The inflammatory process in men is always accompanied by unpleasant sensations.
The main cause of its occurrence are genital infections. In this case, the first symptom is weakness. Her man can feel a few hours after the penetration of pathogenic flora into the body. Non-infectious causes exist, but they are much less common. We are talking about allergies, malnutrition and personal hygiene.
Thus, the most common causes of urethritis in men are the following:
- Sexually transmitted diseases (herpes, ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia).
- Disturbance of metabolic processes.
- Exposure to the body of toxic substances.
- Stagnation of the pelvic organs (they can be preceded by constipation and hemorrhoids).
- Allergy to food, personal hygiene products, medicines.
- Unbalanced diet, rich salty and sour foods.
Stress and frequent hypothermia can trigger inflammation.
Types of urethritis
In modern medical practice, several classifications of urethritis are used.
Depending on the conditions of occurrence, it can be infectious and non-infectious. The first group, in turn, is divided into the following types:
- Specific urethritis. Its development causes a certain pathogen - gonococcus. At the same time, whitish secretions are observed from the urethra. After drying, crusts form. Patients usually complain of pain and burning at the beginning of urination.
- Nonspecific urethritis. Other pathogens contribute to its occurrence. Depending on this, the following varieties of nonspecific urethritis are distinguished:
The non-infectious form of the disease is divided into allergic and chemical.
The course is acute, torpid and chronic urethritis in men. Symptoms and causes of the last two are similar and weakly expressed, but differ in time of occurrence. The first signs of torpid urethritis appear within two months, and chronic - after 2 months or more.
Primary and secondary urethritis are also distinguished. In the first case, the urinary canal is affected, where local inflammation develops. The secondary form occurs when infection from other foci penetrates the healthy urethra.
The clinical picture
Causes of urethritis in men determine the clinical picture of the disease, the incubation period. For example, in the case of an allergic form of the disease, the first symptoms appear after a few hours, with sexually transmitted infections - within a few days. As for the viral species, the symptoms of the disease occur only after months.
Acute urethritis is characterized by a sudden onset and a pronounced clinical picture. Typically, patients present the following complaints:
- itching and burning in the urethra;
- increased urge to urinate;
- the appearance of impurities of pus or blood in the urine;
- clumping and swelling of the urethra due to clumping;
- discomfort when urinating.
The general condition, as a rule, remains within the normal range. In especially serious cases, there is an increase in temperature, muscle weakness, malaise, fatigue.
Sometimes the disease is hidden, there are no obvious symptoms. The lack of treatment leads to a transformation into a chronic form of the disease. What is urethritis, men (in any case, most of them) do not even know until the first visit to the doctor. It has a wave-like course, when periods of remission are replaced by exacerbation. Mild itching along the urethra, slight discharge and mild soreness when urinating - these are all the symptoms. After about 7-10 days they completely disappear.
What is urethritis men, can tell the urologist. It is to this specialist that you need to contact when the symptoms of the disease appear. Diagnosis begins with a study of the patient’s history, complaints, and physical examination. Then the doctor prescribes a series of tests (urine, bacteriosis, smear from the urethra) to clarify the cause of the disease.
In the general analysis of urine, the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and other indicators is estimated.
the presence of pathogenic flora. In the morning, a man should urinate in a special sterile container, which must be purchased in advance at the pharmacy. It must be delivered to the laboratory within two hours. Before the procedure, the genitals and hands should be washed thoroughly. The first and last stream of urine is skipped. It may contain bacteria from the urethra, which will only distort the analysis result.
A few days before the urological smear, it is recommended to refrain from intimacy and try not to urinate for 2-3 hours before the analysis is taken. During the procedure, the specialist first processes the glans penis with disinfectants, then inserts the swab to a depth of about 1 cm. He sends the swab to the laboratory, where the exact cause of the infection is established.
Additionally, hardware research methods are used (urethroscopy, ultrasound , urethrography). Differential diagnosis with other diseases of the genitourinary sphere is mandatory. For example, cystitis and urethritis in men have a similar clinical picture, but require a different therapeutic approach.
General treatment recommendations
How to treat urethritis in men? Drugs for therapy, their dosage is selected by the doctor. In most cases, it is possible to overcome the ailment at home. Only complicated forms require hospitalization of the patient. The principles of treatment are reduced to compliance with the following rules:
- complete rejection of sexual activity, including oral sex and masturbation;
- exclusion of alcoholic beverages;
- use of antibiotics;
- local remedies are recommended after the acute process subsides;
- immunotherapy is mandatory.
It is also important to follow a diet. At the time of treatment, you should limit the consumption of spices, marinades, fatty and salty foods. To speed up the healing process, you must follow a drinking regimen. Up to 2 liters of fluid is recommended daily.
All infectious forms of urethritis are stopped by antibacterial agents. They are selected taking into account the causative agent of the ailment. Therefore, before the appointment, the patient must pass a number of additional tests. In order to not miss time, in the acute period antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are recommended.
At home, treatment in men of non-specific urethritis involves the use of third-generation cephalosporins ("Cefixime"). If gonococcus is resistant to drugs, fluoroquinolone antibiotics are prescribed (Ofloxacin). After completion of treatment, in the absence of symptoms of pathology, a provocative test is performed. Its essence boils down to identifying the remaining pathogenic flora in the body. Such attention to gonococcus is due to the high likelihood of hidden intracellular parasitism.
The treatment of the disease occurring against the background of genital infections involves the use of the following antibiotics:
- Gonorrhea urethritis: "Fusidine", "Cefaclor" .
- Chlamydial form of the disease: Azithromycin.
- Trichomonas urethritis: Nitazole, Metronidazole.
In the case of chronic urethritis in men, antibiotic treatment is somewhat modified. Drugs are administered as a solution in the urethra. Such instillations cannot be carried out independently; the help of medical workers is required. Otherwise, a man can damage the tissues of the urethra, which will only aggravate the course of inflammation. Therapy is necessarily supplemented with medications based on adrenal hormones (Prednisolone). Outside the stage of exacerbation, physiotherapeutic procedures (electrophoresis, magnetotherapy) give a good effect.
According to reviews, urethritis in men cannot be overcome without local drugs actions. These include ointments and suppositories for rectal administration:
- "Indomethacin". The tool is applied directly to the glans penis. After some time, redness or a rash may appear in this area.
- "Hexicon". Suppositories are administered rectally. Thanks to the soft base, the active substance quickly spreads over the mucous membranes, which ensures its uniform distribution. If after use an allergy appears in the form of itching and burning, it is better to refuse the drug.
- "Diclovit." Rectal suppositories have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. After administration, it is recommended to remain in a supine position for about another 30 minutes. Applied twice a day.
To stop pain, doctors often prescribe antiseptics. They are available in the form of tablets or local products (Chlorhexidine, Miramistin). After washing, you should limit going to the toilet for at least an hour.
Immunomodulators and vitamin therapy
At home, treatment of urethritis in men always includes vitamin therapy. It allows you to eliminate the deficit of individual trace elements and minerals. Usually, doctors prescribe multivitamin preparations with a high content of vitamins A, D, E and C ("for example," Pikovit "). It is also necessary to review the diet, focus on the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Cure urethritis is possible only with a strong immune system. To strengthen it, sometimes it’s not enough to eat right, take vitamin and mineral complexes. In this case, doctors recommend immunomodulators. You can start taking them after the first symptoms of the disease. The following drugs are considered the most effective: Cycloferon, Polyoxidonium, Likopid.
Traditional medicine help
Treatment with folk remedies for urethritis in men is recommended as an adjunct to drug therapy. This helps speed up the healing process and avoid relapse in the future. For this purpose, various decoctions and infusions of herbs are used. They are easy to cook at home. The following are the most popular recipes:
- Infusion of blackcurrant leaves. The tool is characterized by a pronounced antiseptic effect, contributes to the enrichment of the body with vitamins. To prepare it, you need 3 tablespoons of dry leaves, pour 250 ml of boiling water, insist until completely cooled. Then the infusion must be filtered. It is recommended to take before meals in small portions.
- Decoction based on oak bark. The remedy relieves pain and burning sensation, which is usually felt during urination. To prepare it, you will need a tablespoon of raw materials, pour 250 ml of boiling water, leave in a water bath for 20 minutes. After the broth you need to strain. You can take it orally for a tablespoon, or do sitz baths.
- Infusion of cornflower. According to reviews, it helps to restore microflora, destroys pathogenic flora. To prepare it, you need to pour a tablespoon of dry raw materials with a glass of boiling water, insist for an hour and strain. It is better to take an infusion before a meal of 50 ml.
Alternative treatment of urethritis in men must be agreed with a doctor. Some herbs have contraindications for this disease. In addition, if an allergic reaction occurs, it is better to refuse such therapy.
Complications usually occur if you ignore the symptoms of urethritis in men. Treatment at home without consulting a doctor can also lead to sad consequences. From the focus of a chronic infection, the pathogenic flora can penetrate into other organs, causing the appearance of:
Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland), in turn, often entails reproductive system pathologies, sexual dysfunction, and infertility. Therefore, one cannot ignore urethritis, and when its initial symptoms appear, immediately start therapy.
Methods of prevention
Urethritis is a rather insidious disease. After confirming the diagnosis, it is necessary to strictly follow the doctor's recommendations. Treatment of chronic urethritis in men requires more time and effort than its acute form.
Can pathology be prevented? Doctors give the following recommendations:
- Follow the basic rules of personal hygiene.
- Refuse promiscuity. In case of contact with an accidental partner, you need to use barrier contraceptives - a condom.
- Avoid hypothermia, physical and emotional overwork.
- Forever say goodbye to addictions.
- Prevent urination delays, and the first urge to completely empty the bladder.
- Try to avoid the use of other people's personal items (towels, shoes, underwear).
Every man should twice a year to be examined by a urologist. One cannot ignore a specialist even in the absence of visible health problems. Many infectious pathologies have a hidden course, and make themselves felt only at an advanced stage.